A heart attack is a risk to life and health. The only way to avoid this is to undergo regular inspection of the cardiovascular system.
A heart attack usually begins with coronary heart disease, and it is nothing as atherosclerosis.
Stop blood flow to one of the departments of the myocardium, because the clot will block blood flow. But when cholesterol plaque in the beginning will die and eventually will increase in size, it will occupy the entire lumen of the artery. If the blood at least 20 minutes will not reach the heart, or to one of the vessels, there will be a necrosis (necrosis) of tissue on the heart muscle.
If atherosclerotic plaques block the large arteries occur heart attack. Blood flow is interrupted, cells will cease to receive nourishment and oxygen will begin to die, the result is myocardial infarction. The more cells affected, the more extensive will be a heart attack.
If the blood supply to the myocardium is disturbed, it will lead eventually: cardiac disorder, irreversible changes to the heart muscle, the formation of post-infarction scar.
The first signs of myocardial infarction are different, all depends: on pain threshold, lesion size, associated chronic diseases.
The culprit of heart attack — cholesterol plaque, its integrity may be broken:
- great physical, emotional stress;
- increase in blood pressure, under stress, strong emotion, violent anger, etc.;
- excessive heartbeat;
- from overheating in the sun.
A heart attack occurs: at rest, during sleep, or early in the morning after waking up. The main cause is atherosclerosis, it can be transmitted genetically by inheritance.
But if this is compounded by another:
- diabetes mellitus;
- alcohol abuse, Smoking;
- frequent increase in blood pressure;
- a sedentary lifestyle;
- the abuse of fried, oily, etc. read More about the diet when preinfarction condition, read here.
Then the possibility of getting heart attack increases significantly.
- Signs of infarction on ECG:
- The first is the R — wave is completely absent in leads placed over the site of infarction.
- The second — a pathological Q wave appears again in the leads is located over the area of infarction.
- Third is the rise of segment S — T above the contour in leads, which are located directly over the heart attack.
- The fourth discordant shift segment S — T below the contour in the opposite place from a heart attack.
- Fifth, the negative T wave is located over the zone of infarction.
But sometimes this is not enough and then recommend further tests.
- To understand how the plot affected and how much, carry out echocardiography (ultrasound of the heart). Most of these studies only show large abnormalities, but there are exceptions.
- Sometimes a patient is prescribed a more qualitative examination of the heart in two ways:
- One photon computed tomography, using rotating detectors create three-dimensional tomography.
- Scintigraphy: is introduced into the body radioactive isotope — device. Get a two-dimensional image by using the radiation emitted by them. This is called functional diagnosis.
These methods are the most reliable, can accurately determine the areas of necrosis. After him, the doctor can prescribe more appropriate treatment. During therapy, such surveys can reliably show how effective the medicine.
- Conducting a common blood test for heart attack: increases significantly the number of leukocytes, increased ESR partially. The number of enzymes increased MB fraction of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, etc. They are called markers, if present, elevated troponin, and this is a primary token, so damage is definitely. He may hold from 3-5 hours, up to 4 to 11 days.
- Do the cardiac catheterization and coronary angiography: introduce a tube through the arm or groin into the artery to reach the coronary arteries. Specify what the blood flow in the heart chambers. Withdraw blood samples, conduct x-ray arteries.
Statistics States that women suffer from this disease in 2 times less often than men. Probably because of risk factors men have more smoke, move a little, have a tendency to rivalry, scandals. It causes diseases: arrhythmia, angina, atherosclerosis, etc.
- During a heart attack, men usually experience classic with income: the pain behind the sternum, more on the left side of the jaw, numbness and tingling of the hands, etc. But the pain expressed much stronger.
In women the symptoms are varied, they are sometimes even mistaken for normal fatigue, heartburn, stomach pain, influenza, insomnia.
- Women at a young age from a heart attack defending estrogenic hormones, they dilate the coronary vessels. But during menopause and after, your heart becomes vulnerable to blockage of blood vessels. In men, the heart attack occurs due to extensive blockage of the arteries in women is noted, but not so serious. Therefore, they are more difficult to diagnose.
- In both sexes equally heart attacks happen due to heavy and sudden spasms of the arteries. In women more often than men happens to be the second type of heart attack — coronary artery dissection, its walls suddenly burst, causing a heart attack. More common in young, relatively healthy women.
The difference of the symptoms of male and female caused by nothing other than the different physiological features:
- for example, the male heart, female;
- the women often beats 80 beats per minute, 75 men.
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It is almost always preceded by “the bells”, to which we must pay attention:
- Fatigue is the most common symptom , in combination: sweating, gastrointestinal disorders, pain in your left side or chest, can be a sure sign of a novice of the disease, especially true for females.
- Dizziness — should not be ignored. This is a sure sign of oxygen starvation. The brain loses oxygen, it begins due to the fact that the heart can no longer fully cope with its functions.
- Tachycardia — you can, of course, and just alarmed, it also may lead to palpitations, uchenomu pulse. But if it happened without apparent reason, it means that the body can give you, therefore, signal the beginning of the impending attack.
- Shortness of breath — occurs due to shortage of oxygen, if added to other signs, urgently address to the doctor.
- Unmotivated anxiety — if you embraced animal terror backed by nothing, and noting the above symptoms, call an ambulance.
The more notice the above symptoms, the risk of heart attack more.
- Pressuring-compressive pain in the chest, usually the left side, but can give: in the area of the shoulder blades, thighs, arms, back.
- Mostly intense pain, but sometimes wavy, with a decrease and increase in pain.
- Persists even after taking nitroglycerin.
- Shortness of breath, breathing is difficult.
- Can be: an overwhelming bout of nausea, or even vomiting, pains in the stomach.
- Dizziness, severe weakness.
- The skin becomes pale, clammy sweat stands.
- Numbness in left hand tingling.
But it is not always so disease manifests itself, a person can feel: only a small disruption of the heart, or just chest discomfort. If a large area of damage, may begin cardiogenic shock: the lips turn blue, heartbeat and pulse are not determined, the skin will acquire a marble color.
Upon the slightest suspicion of a heart attack, the patient must:
- Take a half upright position.
- Be sure to reassure, to undo a compression garment, remove the tie and open all the Windows.
- If you have at hand nitroglycerin, give to the prospective patient (put under the tongue) dose of 0.5 Gy.
- If within 3-4 minutes, the pain will not go away, call an ambulance immediately.
- Before arrival of doctors you can still take the pill, but not earlier than in 10-15 minutes.
- If nitroglycerin is no, replace it with plain aspirin 300 mg. If a person takes it daily, then 300 mg take adopted this day dose, and calculate dosage given to the patient. Aspirin need to chew to work faster.
- If the patient is overwhelmed by feelings of fear, panic, tries to get up and fuss, so he needs to calm down with 35-40 drops valokordin.
- Follow the breathing and heart rhythm, and if more is missing, need an ambulance to revive the patient. To do chest compressions, or CPR.
The assistance must be provided competently and quickly, or the sense of further treatment will not.
- the relief of pain;
- the resumption of blood flow in the affected artery by a blood clot;
- reduce the need heart of oxygen;
- treatment of complications.
- Pain syndrome — clean anesthesia, is a priority. Use narcotic analgesics: morphine, promedol, omnopon etc.
- The next step is to restore blood flow, through vasodilatory drugs: nitroglycerin, it is administered intravenously. Using drugs that prevent blood clots (anticoagulants) fondaparinux (Arixtra), enoxaparin (Clexan). It helps the body to dissolve (lyse) blood clots. Administered drugs directly into the fat (subcutaneous) tissue of the abdomen.
- Reduce the oxygen demand — defined medical drugs slow the heart rate to 50-55 beats per minute, then normalizes blood pressure. Especially the first week recommended bed rest. In acute heart failure attributed to medications that improve contractility of the myocardium and diuretic.
- The patient within 7– 10 days should be observed in the intensive care unit, the intensive care unit for treatment of various complications. Now the most effective means of percutaneous coronary intervention.
Will have to take the rest of my life:
- Aspirin prevents formation of blood clots. Intolerance of this drug: tiklopidin, clopidogrel.
- ACE inhibitors — angiotensin, reduces the load on the heart.
- Lipid-lowering drugs — reduce cholesterol in the blood.
- Beta-blockers — lower blood pressure and heart rate.
This disease never completely fails, the consequences and complications always negativesum impact on the body. It will depend on how extensive the myocardial damage. The consequences are: acute and delayed.
Sharp — start after the death of some myocardial cells:
- often develops with heart failure;
- pulmonary edema;
- embolism, thrombosis.
Delayed — start with the gradual development of heart failure due to scarring of the myocardium:
- the blood circulation;
- cardiac asthma.
- To completely give up alcohol, Smoking.
- To comply with salt-free diet.
- Vital moderate physical activity, under the supervision of physicians.
- Strictly control your weight.
- Monitor your blood pressure.
- To continue its work but with some limitations.
- Periodically visit the hospital and to fulfill all the requirements of a doctor.
If you begin to notice a slightest symptoms of a heart attack, immediately make an appointment with the doctor, hand over the necessary tests and examinations. Don’t mess with your health, take action now! Be healthy!