Infarction of the anterior wall of the myocardium represents a serious threat to human life. In most cases, the attack ends with death of the patient. Even if the patient recovered, the likelihood of relapse is very high. A significant deterioration of blood circulation in the tissues is accompanied by rapid necrosis and spreading of the pathological process.
Anterior myocardial infarction has poor prognosis. During the attack significantly damaged heart tissue, leaving little chance for recovery. The problem leads to a decrease in cardiac output and inhibition of contractility.
Statistics show that during the year of such diagnosis is million people in the world. The pathological process disturbs the work of the left ventricle and becomes the cause of cardiogenic pulmonary edema.
If the patient does not assist in time or will select the wrong treatment, that is, the probability of a massive heart attack. If it significantly increases the area of destruction and irreversible violations.
Precipitating factors that may cause such processes are:
- bad habits, especially Smoking;
- high blood pressure;
- disorders of metabolic processes in the body that occur in diabetes;
- high levels of cholesterol in the blood.
To increase the risk of developing disorders can increased risk of blood clots.
Attack of infarction in the anterior wall of the heart muscle can be:
- peredneprivodnyh. There is a process of circulatory disorders in the anterior wall of the ventricle;
- anterolateral, which is the most common;
- isolated side;
- small injuries.
The pathological process can occur in different forms.
In this infarction, a gradual cell death as a result of insufficient blood flow to the anterior wall of the heart muscle. This leads to the development of an acute attack, rapidly progressing without proper treatment. The problem may occur as a result of:
- narrowing of vascular lumen. Because of this disturbed the flow of blood and decreases its supply to the heart. If a narrowing of the coronary vessels, developing coronary disease. There are irreversible pathological changes in the vessel walls;
- blockage by a clot. The severity of circulatory disorders depends on the size of the clot. He may completely close the lumen, which would entail serious complications;
- the demand of myocardium in oxygen. The problem occurs due to heavy physical exertion. It was during them, the probability of attack increases.
Infarction of the anterior wall commonly seen in the male half of humanity. But with age increase the chances of occurrence problems in women. An important role in the development of the disease played by hereditary predisposition.
The clinical picture is when a heart attack has similarities with other pathologies of the heart. To distinguish them can only by a doctor under medical care. During the attack the patient observed the following problems:
- really starting to hurt in the heart. Discomfort radiating to arm, jaw, shoulder, back. This pain is called angina. It lasts for hours, relieved by narcotic analgesics, nitrates will not bring relief. People with diabetes, this symptom is absent;
- a little numb limbs;
- it becomes difficult to move my arms, especially the left;
- discomfort is felt in the stomach;
- the body does not take food, immediately after eating it vomiting begins;
- quickens and disturbed heart rhythm;
- the patient weakens, loses its ability to navigate in space;
- skin turning blue.
The above symptoms may also be accompanied by coldness of the fingers on his left hand, a strong sense of anxiety and fear, panic attacks. Some patients suffer from difficulties with the perception of reality and of memory disorders.
It is common symptoms of attack. But different types of symptoms may vary slightly. So, when small focal infarct in most cases, there is only a strong pain in the heart.
In people with a diagnosis of diabetes, the symptoms may vary slightly. The attack is manifested by severe weakness, disruptions in the different systems of the body, insomnia, increased sweating, impaired coordination of movements. Diabetes symptoms of heart attack are weak or nonexistent. The patient may feel a slight discomfort in the heart, and just don’t pay attention to it.
Peredneprivodnyh infarction is accompanied by severe numbness of the limbs, mostly on the left, and pain in the chest.
As infarction develops in several stages:
- The first stage – ischemia. It may precede development of heart attacks and occurs over a long period of time. The basis of the pathological process is a violation of the hemodynamics of the myocardium. The attack occurs when the artery is narrowed by 70%. This state lasts from several hours to three days.
- The second stage is the necrobiosis. While damaged muscle fibers due to acute disorders of coronary circulation. At this stage begins to form a zone of necrosis, but not always. It can last for several weeks or appears in a couple of hours after the attack. Damage is reduced, due to the death of a certain part of the muscle fibers, the other part is sick of the tissues is restored, and the injury develops ischemia. This acute phase.
- Necrosis. In the third stage, the tissue, which has suffered deep damage, fully die. Area then it disappears and forms a zone of necrosis. This phase of subacute. On it and judge the size of a heart attack. It can last up to three months, but some patients feel their symptoms and up to a year. This period must exclude acute heart aneurysm.
- Scarring. In the fourth stage, the damaged tissue scar. This process continues throughout a person’s life. Necrotic areas are covered by scar tissue and tightening the healthy myocardium. There is compensatory hypertrophy of muscle fibers, so the area of infarction is reduced and metabolic processes in the tissues are reduced. Signs of a postponed attack at this stage is completely absent. But, if painful sensations appear in the area behind the breastbone and enzyme levels in the blood increases, then we can talk about the relapse.
Diagnosis of infarction of the anterior wall of the left ventricle comprises:
- blood analysis on the level of cardiotropic proteins.
Delayed diagnostic events are:
- coronary angiography;
- myocardial scintigraphy.
Also conduct additional laboratory studies that determine how much blood magnesium and potassium. These micronutrients are responsible for the saturation of blood with oxygen. If this is not enough, therefore, decreased nutrition of tissues and worsens the condition of the tissues of the heart muscle.
When you attack to increase the chances of survival possible by providing correct first aid. If there are signs of a heart attack, you need to:
- to give the patient a reclining position;
- give a nitroglycerin tablet;
- if three minutes have not relief, call an ambulance;
- if the patient has no Allergy to Aspirin, he should chew 300 mg;
- if unconscious and in cardiac arrest need CPR and chest compressions.
In the initial stages of development of heart attack pain, restore coronary blood flow. Severe heart failure require surgical intervention.
Manifestations of infarction of the condition resolve with medication. Therapy:
- medications for pain;
- neuroleptics and tranquilizers to eliminate the fear and panic;
- preparations for the normalization of the blood clotting system and accelerate the resorption of blood clots;
- means for the stabilization of metabolic processes.
The patient should also avoid bad habits, diet with plenty of greens, vegetables, vitamins and minerals, enter the required exercise.
It is important to completely eliminate the impact of stress and emotional stress on a person after a heart attack.
A stable emotional state greatly increases the effectiveness of drug therapy.
Many patients develops after a bout of anxiety-depression. The patient feels depressed, there is apathy. Therefore, the necessary psychotherapeutic help.
As a result of extensive infarction of the anterior wall of the heart there are severe and life-threatening complications. After an attack there is a high possibility:
- acute heart failure accompanied by pulmonary edema, shock;
- cardiogenic shock;
- arrhythmias and heart conduction;
- different types of thromboembolism;
- rupture of the heart muscle;
- recurrence of severe pain behind the breastbone;
- arterial hypertension and hypotension;
- disorders of respiratory function after administration of narcotic analgesics.
In the later period may develop post-infarction syndrome, thromboembolic complications, chronic heart failure, cardiac aneurysm.