A burn is tissue damage that occurs as a result of exposure to high temperatures, chemicals. Burn wounds are different degrees of severity, characterized by depth and area of damage to the soft tissue. The duration of the recovery process, methods and ways of treatment depend on the severity of injuries and the reasons that caused them. Just medicine there are four stages of the burn, each of them characterized by depth of tissue damage and their extent. The easiest is the first one that with minimal attention from the person lasts for two to three days, leaving absolutely no traces. For severe forms of burns include third and fourth, with such injuries the treatment is conducted solely in a hospital and requires a long recovery period.
This article is devoted to second-degree burns as the most common, which can be obtained in the home and in the workplace.
Based on the generally accepted medical definition, a burn is a violation of the integrity of the skin or mucous membranes, which occurs as a result of the unnatural contact with high temperatures or certain chemicals.
Second degree burn is characterized by damage to not only the upper layer of the skin called epidermis but also the dermis. It involves a violation of capillary permeability. In addition, the disease also affects nerve endings.
Visually identify a second-degree burn by the following characteristics:
- the contact area is inflamed and red;
- sick, and the pain is worse when touched. Burning intense pain last about three days;
- active blisters with liquid inside.
It should be noted that the formation of blisters occurs almost immediately after exposure to high temperatures or chemicals, in some cases, they appear after some time. This is because when you peel off the top layer of the epidermis is formed a space which is filled with a transparent fluid from the blood plasma and damaged capillaries. After some time, the inner contents of the bladder becomes cloudy. Independently to open them is impossible. But, very often, random strain, with the result that the contents of the blister spreads and in its place offers a bright red wet erosion fabric. When the correct processing wound, the tissue is gradually restored, and the skin acquires its natural state and color.
If the burn is second degree, was obtained as a result of prolonged exposure to the sun, it is initially the skin becomes red, bake, and then covered with a large number of blisters. Extensive sunburn may be accompanied by nausea and fever. If in opening the wound gets an infection, it develops inflammation with pus.
In General, health with the burn injuries depends on its area.
For an adult to be considered a safe second-degree burn area of not more than 10%, for small children – no more than 2 %.
When a large area of skin lesions and abundant coverage of the wound with the blisters can cause complications in burn disease or shock.
Also represent a serious threat to second-degree burns in the groin and face.
The main criterion to determine the type of burns is the type of source unnatural the impact of which on the skin, provokes their damage.
As a rule, the skin suffers from contact with high temperatures from fire, hot objects, liquids, steam, and corrosive effects on tissues chemicals, or radiation.
Therefore, there are the following types:
- radiation (solar), although the second degree of damage of this type is extremely rare and that people with very fair skin (radiation);
- electric is the impact of current or lightning. The data of physical phenomena, in contact with the body form the point of entry of the discharge and its release. It is in these places and formed a burn.
In children up to three years, the most common causes of burns are scalding, boiling, steaming and touching hot objects. As a rule, suffer hands (palms and palms). This is a particularly painful injury, as on the palms and fingertips, a lot of nerve receptors.
Often also suffer from thermal burns of the leg and foot. These body parts take on “blow” spilled boiling water, fire, hot objects, etc.
It is worth to highlight a second-degree burn on the face. Its causes may be getting steam, and boiling water, and chemicals, and welding, and even a cosmetic procedure for facial cleansing with the use of phenol-containing drugs. Also damage the skin and iodine, hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate and other aggressive substances, if not to observe the desired concentration and safety.
The most complex of the SECOND degree burns are damage to the eyes and esophagus. Eyes gets as a result of negligent handling of chemicals, flammable liquids, explosive designs. Burns of the esophagus, typically leads to damage of the mucous membranes and muscle tissues. Experiencing these injuries after being hit by a chemicals.
The first minutes after the injury, as the damaged surface, we can assume the severity of the injury. The first thing you need to pay attention to it blisters. Their presence indicates the second degree. If the burn is pretty extensive, for the diagnosis, you should contact the medical facility where the doctor kombustiolog, on the basis of clinical (the affected area, swelling, pain) will determine the level. In addition, when the exposed blisters the doctor will be able to identify or prevent the development of infection in the wound.
It is more difficult with internal burns. In order to determine how badly damaged the respiratory tract, the esophagus, it is necessary to do an x-ray and full blood count and urine. According to the results, the conclusion about degree burn of internal organs, and is assigned to the appropriate treatment.
It is important to understand that qualified first aid depends on many things – that the depth of the burn and level of pain, and duration of the recovery period, and, of course, the absence or presence of scars on the skin. Therefore, make sure you know what you can do for burns, and that is strictly forbidden. And so, render first aid to the injured with second degree burns. Right actions are the following:
- The burned surface should be freed immediately from the source of trauma from the clothing;
- Affected area of the body is immediately placed in cold water, preferably under flow, but this stream is not sent directly to the wound, if this is not possible, can be used for cooling and storage capacity with cool water. Thanks to cold, a decrease in skin temperature, which prevents its damage in the interior. Furthermore, the reduced effect of pain, due to the fact that under the influence of low temperatures decrease blood vessels. Cold procedures when providing first aid should last at least twenty minutes, but can be longer, about an hour, ie before the time the victim will begin to feel a little numb.
- The next thing is washing the wound with an antiseptic solution without alcohol, for example, Chlorhexidine, Furacilin.
- The imposition on the damaged skin with a sterile gauze bandage.
- In cases of severe pain, recommended the adoption of pain medications, in the form of tablets or injections.
While second degree burns do not:
- tearing the fabric with wounds, it should be carefully cut with scissors along the perimeter and the remainder to soak in cold water;
- to cool use ice;
- applied to the wound cotton wool and tightly bandage the damaged surface;
- to use a disinfectant, iodine;
- to apply fat-containing components and natural products (oil, grease, sour cream);
- independently open blisters, do it can only be a doctor in compliance with sterile conditions.
After first aid the victim should be sure to show your doctor who will prescribe the appropriate treatment. As a rule, not extensive burns of the second degree it is to be conducted in the home while respecting the fundamental rules and recommendations of the doctor. But, internal burns are treated only in a medical facility.
Adequate therapy allows to significantly reduce the healing time of wounds. Today, the pharmaceutical industry offers a broad spectrum of anti-drugs General and local action. However, self-administration of medicines is not always justified. Because each media has its indications and contraindications, so it is best to use those drugs that the physician prescribes.
In the treatment of second degree burns of great importance antiseptic and anti-inflammatory drugs.
Antiseptics are treated wound in the early days. Often use “Miramistin”, “Chlorhexidine”.
To relieve inflammation and prevent the development of purulent process apply the ointment: “Levomekol”, “Syntomycin”, “Furatsilinom”, “Gentamicin” and others. In addition, popular and ointment with Panthenol. They are highly moisturizing and healing effect.
Very popular and the doctors, and the patient uses the spray “Panthenol”. It is very convenient to use, moreover, proved as very effective in the treatment of burns.
In the treatment of burns and prescribed antihistamines. They remove swelling, remove itching. Often recommend taking the pill Suprastin or claritin.
Severe pain you can drink any painkillers, and if necessary, your doctor may prescribe and injections.
To enhance regeneration and production of collagen, you should drink and vitamins A, E and C. in addition, stick to a balanced diet. After all, the body needs strength to recover.
When second-degree burn, the appearance of bubbles is inevitable. Handle them with caution, trying all manipulations to be carried out so not to damage their integrity.
If the small blisters, with proper treatment of burns with special products (see above), they are themselves.
But sometimes, the blisters merge together and form large bubbles (one or more), in which the collected turbid liquid. They need to be open, but this can only be a doctor, subject to the special sterile conditions.
In case when the blisters bursting on their own, that revealed the surface should be treated with antiseptic solution, and a shell to cut with scissors that are pre-sterilized.
If for some reason, in the burn wound appeared the inflammation and suppuration began, access to a doctor should be immediate. Since under such circumstances, you may need additional therapy with antibiotics.
Inflammation when the victim raises the temperature, raises chills, weakness. The danger of this condition is that in case of untimely actions of the purulent process is dangerous enough, can even lead to death.
Principles action for burns in babies the same as adults. The only thing that differs is the dosage and concentration of drugs. In addition, there is psychological difficulty in the first aid and further treatment. Since children are emotionally sensitive, they are more sensitive to pain, and unsightly blisters can cause them additional stress. Therefore, the actions of the parents must be accurate and correct. After first aid, the injured child need to see a doctor, who will prescribe the necessary medicines. To self-medicate, and especially to use traditional methods, not recommended.
Not complicated by infectious processes second-degree burns heal within two weeks. If there were complications, the recovery process is naturally delayed.
Conventional medicine identifies three healing stages of burns. On the first or necrotic, is the exclusion of damaged tissue and the formation of bubbles. This stage involves regular antiseptic treatment of wounds and treatment of anti-inflammatory drugs. With proper therapy, this stage gradually passes into the second granulation. It is characterized by the disappearance of blisters and inflammation. At this stage of tissue repair, so the burn continues to be processed wound-healing ointments.
And the third stage is the epithelialization. The burn is delayed new skin. This is the stage of full recovery.
It is important to understand that well-chosen medications, as well as timely processing of wounds with antiseptic solutions significantly reduces the time of healing and restoration of the skin.