All the knowledge about anemia (anemia) the majority of the population are reduced to a “pale appearance”, under-pressure and frequent weaknesses. If you are sure that this is all a dangerous anemia, but not have information. Don’t want to scare you, but at the present stage is not always medical science can cope with anemia and its complications.
The most familiar form of disease — hemorrhagic anemia that occurs when bleeding. Loss of circulating blood volume is 1 liter or more can lead to shock with reflex spasm and thrombosis of small arterial branches. The condition can cause circulatory disorders of the brain, heart, renal arterioles.
The types of diseases and its causes are various, but the essence is the same: to reduce the number of red blood cells or they lose the ability to bind and carry oxygen molecules. Replacing these cells with no.
Consider the degree of danger based on the pathological processes in the human body caused by anemia in different periods of life.
All forms of anemia there is one common “feature” — they can lead to a condition called tissue hypoxia or oxygen starvation. This hurt most of all vital organs, which normally consume for their work the maximum amount of energy. After all, to get the calories the cells of needed oxygen.
Anoxia in the absence of treatment leads first to reversible suspension of functioning of all metabolic processes, and in the end it is irreversible.
Man with hypoxia are constantly in need of additional oxygen, but in anemia it is not absorbed
Hypoxia threatens the heart, blocks the work of liver cells and the filtering of the kidneys, accumulates in the muscles and tissues oxidized products, toxins and components that poison the brain.
Hypoxic coma in severe stages causes encephalopathy with loss of function of neurons. The consequences become irreversible and lead to death. In the development of anemia plays an important role not only to the lack of oxygen and deficient condition.
The proportion of iron deficiency anemia in the overall incidence of anemia up to 90%. About 2/3 of the total dietary iron is spent on the synthesis of heme, a part of protein and mineral compounds of hemoglobin. Another third goes to the formation of the necessary liver enzymes. The body reserves are small.
The lack of receipt of iron from food deprives the red blood cells hemoglobin is the only substance capable of binding oxygen molecules.
Iron deficiency status at first violates the disabled person, reduces attention, and in severe stage leads to anemic coma.
Deficiency of vitamin b12 and folic acid lead to impaired DNA synthesis in red blood cells, difficulty in dividing them, the destruction of the myelin sheath of nerve fibers. The patients have such serious consequences:
- changes in the psyche;
- hallucinations and delirium;
- reduction in motor activity;
- the liver dysfunction.
Anemia is complicated by bleeding, impaired memory, decreased sensitivity of the skin.
Aplastic or sickle cell, anemia is inherited. Improper synthesis of protein part of hemoglobin. Accompanied by severe hemolytic crisis, which flow with the clinic of thrombosis of vessels of brain and heart, severe liver dysfunction, acute trophic ulcers.
Disease caused by altered DNA structure of genes
In most of the cases of aplastic anemia causes are still not established. Genetic changes diagnosed is very difficult, and the disease is difficult, since destruction of the blood. The disease is dangerous, if it is inherited by the offspring. Therefore, before conception, prospective parents should consult with geneticists.
For patients significant danger is any infection. On the background of anemia, it quickly leads to sepsis and death.
For women of childbearing age who wish to have healthy children, you must consider the likelihood of complications during pregnancy anemia and the degree of threat to the health of the expectant mother.
Anemia expect in the second and third trimester. It is associated with the physiological development of placental circulation. The detection of abnormal values of the blood of the correction of the diet, medicines, safe for mother and fetus.
Complications of untreated anemia can be:
- miscarriage or premature birth;
- pronounced toxemia;
- detachment of the placenta and bleeding;
- the weakening of labor.
In the postpartum period the mother is threatened by the lack of milk or the lack of it.
Anemia mother passes obligatory threat to the fetus. The hypoxic condition causes abnormalities in utero formation of the internal organs. Thus subsequently have children with birth defects.
Premature delivery contribute to the birth of a baby with developmental delays, unprepared for independent feeding and breathing
The care of premature infants requires complete isolation and sterility. The most dreaded complication — the birth of a stillborn child.
Hereditary anemia are detected in a child at an early age, often accompanied by congenital malformations. The life of a child completely depends on the capabilities of bone marrow transplantation, protection from infection.
It is known that anemia of the mother contributes to the child up to a year of frequent infectious diseases, Allergy and allergic reactions. Because of the tendency to enterocolitis the child is not gaining weight and is lagging behind in development from their peers.
For children of early school age with anemia related:
- reduced performance;
- the lack of attention on the lessons;
Anemia with all its problems is among the risk factors of many diseases. The constant lack of oxygen, blocking the necessary enzymes enhance the process of tissue ischemia of the heart, brain. This means a greater chance of development to 50 years of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke. Anemia not only prevent, but also stimulates atherosclerotic process with all the consequences in the form:
- thrombosis of vessels of atherosclerotic plaques;
- embolism in arteries and veins;
- of developing heart attacks the internal organs.
Older patients with anemia practically has diffuse foci of infarction complicated by heart rhythm disturbance, interruption of conduction.
Treatment and rehabilitation of the patient with acute coronary diseases and stroke is considerably difficult, if he has chronic anemia. Cells in the ischemic tissue die faster, collateral vessels do not have the necessary opportunities for additional circulation. Quickly formed a General circulatory failure.
The decrease in the functional activity of the liver cells actively involved in the chain of pathology of the gastrointestinal organs. Disturbed processing of food, absorption of medication. Such a patient is difficult to determine the optimal dose of the right meds often show signs of overdose.
The lack of oxygen in the neurons of the brain leads to early signs of aging, decline in memory and mental abilities. Anemia without treatment dire consequences, a tendency to other chronic diseases.
Take comfort in the fact that severe complications develop only in the absence of timely treatment or anemia of unknown origin. Timely serious attitude to the revealed changes in the blood helps to hold the treatment and to remove the cause by diet, refusal of bad habits, removal of intoxication.
The risk of anemic manifestations should be prevented in the early stages. Then you can expect to delay old age, frequent respiratory diseases, which gives the opportunity to enjoy life.